Now it’s time to get into the TCP header.
Obviously TCP over raw socket is very hard to use! Retrasmissions, control flow, congestion avoidance… All of that need to be implemented. However this may be interesting for learning and testing!
So let’s se the tcp header structure.
tcphdr->source //[16 bit] Source Port.
tcphdr->dest //[16 bit] Destination Port.
tcphdr->seq //[32 bit] Sequence Number: received payload byte count since the first SYN. It’s the segment ID.
tcphdr->ack_seq //[32 bit] Acknowledgement Number, if the segment is an ACK, this field contains the next Sequence Number that the receiver is waiting for.
tcphdr->res1 //[4 bit] Reserved.
tcphdr->fin //[Flag] After this segment, no more segment expected from sender.
tcphdr->syn //[Flag] TCP connection opening request.
tcphdr->rst //[Flag] Error or opening request denied.
tcphdr->psh //[Flag] If enabled, the data will be sent directly to the application instead of being bufferized.
tcphdr->ack //[Flag] Acknowledgement. Enables field Acknowledgement Number.
tcphdr->urg //[Flag] Notify an Urgent Data, enables field Urgen Pointer.
tcphdr->res2 //[2 bit] Reserved.
tcphdr->doff //[4 bit] Data offset, TCP Header size in 32 bit words.
tcphdr->th_flags //[8 bit] Flags.
tcphdr->window //[16 bit] Advertise Windows Size.
tcphdr->check //[16 bit] Pseudoheader + Data Checksum (see Wikipedia).
tcphdr->urg_ptr //[16 bit] If flag URG is enabled, Urgent Pointer represent the offset from the Seq. Numb.
Now we define also a structure for ip pseudoheader, in order to compute the checksum.